Parisian Hand Painted Lamp Shade
The height of this lamp is 22 inches and the width of this lamp is 12 inches. This lamp will be a conversation piece in your home.
Ge Brand HID Xenon Headlight System Conversion Kit
GE Brand HID Xenon headlight system conversion kit2 pcs. Ballast with Connection Cables, WATER PROOF DESIGN; 2 pcs.
A mood ring shown face front. Note the band of color change.
Thermochromism is the ability of substance to change color due to a change in temperature. A mood ring is an excellent example of this, but it has many other uses. Thermochromism is one of several types of chromism.
The two basic approaches are based on liquid crystals and leuco dyes. Liquid crystals are used in precision applications, as their responses can be engineered to accurate temperatures, but their color range is limited by their principle of operation. Leuco dyes allow wider range of colors to be used, but their response temperatures are more difficult to set with accuracy.
1.1 Thermochromatic Liquid crystals (TLC's)
1.2 Leuco dyes
3 External links
Thermochromatic Liquid crystals (TLC's)
Some liquid crystals are capable of displaying different colors at different temperatures. This change is dependent on selective reflection of certain wavelengths by the crystallic structure of the material, as it changes between the low-temperature crystallic phase, through anisotropic chiral or twisted nematic phase, to the high-temperature isotropic liquid phase. Only the nematic mesophase has thermochromic properties; this restricts the effective temperature range of the material.
The twisted nematic phase has the molecules oriented in layers with regularly changing orientation, which gives them periodic spacing. The light passing the crystal undergoes Bragg diffraction on these layers, and the wavelength with the greatest constructive interference is reflected back, which is perceived as a spectral color. A change in the crystal temperature can result in a change of spacing between the layers and therefore in the reflected wavelength. The color of the thermochromic liquid crystal can therefore continuously range from non-reflective (black) through the spectral colors to black again, depending on the temperature. Typically, the high temperature state will reflect blue-violet, while the low-temperature state will reflect red-orange. Since blue is a shorter wavelength than red, this indicates that the distance of layer spacing is reduced by heating through the liquid-crystal state.
Some such materials are cholesteryl nonanoate or cyanobiphenyls.
Liquid crystals used in dyes and inks often come microencapsulated, in the form of suspension.
Liquid crystals are used in applications where the color change has to be accurately defined. They find applications in thermometers for room, refrigerator, aquarium, and medical use, and in indicators of level of propane in tanks.
Liquid crystals are difficult to work with and require specialized printing equipment. The material itself is also typically more expensive than alternative technologies. High temperatures, ultraviolet radiation, some chemicals and/or solvents have a negative impact on their lifespan.
Example of a Hypercolor t-shirt.
Another example of a Hypercolor t-shirt.
Thermochromic dyes are based on mixtures of leuco dyes with suitable other chemicals, displaying a color change (usually between the colorless leuco form and the colored form) in dependence on temperature. The dyes are rarely applied on materials directly; they are usually in the form of microcapsules with the mixture sealed inside. An illustrative example is the Hypercolor fashion, where microcapsules with crystal violet lactone, weak acid, and a dissociable salt dissolved in dodecanol are applied to the fabric; when the solvent is solid, the dye exists in its lactone leuco form, while when the solvent melts, the salt dissociates, the pH inside the microcapsule lowers, the dye becomes protonated, its lactone ring opens, and its absorption spectrum shifts drastically, therefore it becomes deeply violet. In this case the apparent thermochromism is in fact halochromism.
The dyes most commonly used are spirolactones, fluorans, spiropyrans, and fulgides. The weak acids include bisphenol A, parabens, 1,2,3-triazole derivates, and 4-hydroxycoumarin and act as proton donors, changing the dye molecule between its leuco form and its protonated colored form; stronger acids would make the change irreversible.
Leuco dyes have less accurate temperature response than liquid crystals, and are used in applications where accuracy is not required. They are suitable for general indicators of approximate temperature ("too cool", "too hot", "about OK"), or for various novelty items. They are usually used in combination with some other pigment, producing a color change between the color of the base pigment and the color of the pigment combined with the color of the non-leuco form of the leuco dye. Organic leuco dyes are available for temperature ranges...(and so on)
LED reading lamp, LED reading light, reading lamp, LED table lamp
Item name: LED table lamp Available casing color: Silver, Dark grey, golden LED quantity: 66 pcs
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