Thursday, May 7, 2009

K?rm?n vortex street

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Von Km vortex street off the Chilean coast near the Juan Fernandez Islands.

Km vortex street off the coast of Rishiri Island in Japan.
A Km vortex street is a term used in fluid dynamics for a repeating pattern of swirling vortices caused by the unsteady separation of flow of a fluid over bluff bodies. It is named after the engineer and fluid dynamicist, Theodore von Km and is responsible for such phenomena as the "singing" of suspended telephone or power lines, the vibration of a car antenna at certain speeds.
1 Analysis
2 Engineering problems
3 Formula
4 Insect flight
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
A vortex street will only be observed over a given range of Reynolds numbers (Re), typically above a limiting Re value of about 90. The Reynolds number is a measure of the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in the flow and is defined as:

d = diameter of the cylinder (or some other suitable measure of width of non-circular bodies)
V = steady velocity of the flow upstream of the cylinder
= The kinematic viscosity of the fluid.
The range of Re values will vary with the size and shape of the body from which the eddies are being shed, as well as with the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Over a large Re range (47When a single vortex is shed, an asymmetrical flow pattern forms around the body and changes the pressure distribution. This means that the alternate shedding of vortices can create periodic lateral (sideways) forces on the body in question, causing it to vibrate. If the vortex shedding frequency is similar to the natural frequency of a body or structure, it causes resonance. It is this forced vibration which, at the correct frequency, causes suspended telephone or power lines to "sing" and the antenna on a car to vibrate more strongly at certain speeds.
Engineering problems
Periodic forcing set up in this way can be highly undesirable and hence it is important for engineers to account for the possible effects of vortex shedding when designing a wide range of structures, from submarine periscopes to industrial chimneys.
External images
Volkswagen Fuba antenna
In order to prevent the unwanted vibration of such cylindrical bodies, a longitudinal fin can be fitted on the downstream side, which, providing it is longer than the diameter of the cylinder, will prevent the eddies from interacting and consequently they remain attached. Obviously for a tall building or mast, the relative wind could come from any direction. For this reason, helical projections which look like large screw threads are sometimes placed at the top, which effectively create unsymmetrical three-dimensional flow thereby discouraging the alternate shedding of vortices; this is also found in some car antennas, such as late 1990s/early 2000s Fuba (Fuba Communications Systems) amplified antenna masts, used on the Volkswagen Golf Mk4, Jetta Mk4 and New Beetle.
Even more serious instability can be created in concrete cooling towers for example, especially when built together in clusters. Vortex shedding caused the collapse of three towers at Ferrybridge power station in 1968 during high winds.

Animation of the phenomenon. Courtesy, Cesareo de La Rosa Siqueira.
When considering a long circular cylinder, the frequency of vortex shedding is given by the empirical formula

f = vortex shedding frequency
This formula will generally hold true for the range 250 < Re < 2 105. The dimensionless parameter fd/V is known as the Strouhal number and is named after the Czech physicist, Vincenc Strouhal (1850-1922) who first investigated the steady humming or singing of telegraph wires in 1878.
Insect flight
Recent studies have shown that insects such as bees borrow energy from the vortices that form around their wings during flight. Vortices inherently create drag. Insects can recapture some of this energy and use it to improve speed and maneuverability: They rotate their wings before starting the return stroke, and the wings are lifted by the eddies of air created on the downstroke. The high frequency oscillation of insect wings means that many hundreds of vortices are shed every second. However, this leads to a symmetric vortex street pattern,...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about satellite receiver card, Motorola Signal Booster, . The USB2.0 Satellite Box products should be show more here!

GOME Electrical Appliances

I want to introduct something about .
(Redirected from Gome Electrical Appliances)
GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited??????????
Joint Stock
Mr. Wong Kwong Yu
Beijing, People's Republic of China
Area served
People's Republic of China
Key people
Chairman: Mr. Chen Xiao
Electrical appliance retailing
electrical goodsconsumer electronics
RMB 24,729 million (2006)
Net income
RMB 819 million (2006)
GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited (SEHK: 493) is one of the largest privately-owned electrical appliance retailer in Mainland China and Hong Kong. It was founded by Wong Kwong Yu (Huang Guangyu), a Chinese billionaire, in Beijing in 1987. Its brand name "GOME" was first adopted in 1993. Since 1999, it has developed outside Beijing and established retail outlets in other China cities. It was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2004. As of 2008 Wong is the chairperson, the controlling shareholder, and the director. The company is incorporated in Bermuda.
In November 2008 the Hong Kong Stock Exchange indefinitely halted trading of the company shares after police revealed that Wong was under investigation for stock manipulation. He resigned from company chairman on 16 January 2009.
^ a b
^ GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited
^ GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited - Company Profile Snapshot
^ a b "China's richest man 'under investigation'." CNN. Retrieved on November 24, 2008.
External links
GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited (China)
GOME Electrical Appliances Holding Limited (Hong Kong)
Categories: Companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange | Privately held companies of the People's Republic of China | Retailers of Hong Kong | Companies established in 1987 | Companies in Beijing | Warrants issued in Hong Kong Stock Exchange | Retail companies of China(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about mini harley motorcycle, e1 over ethernet, . The products should be show more here!


I want to introduct something about .
Franchise Organization
Salt Lake City, Utah
Key people
Steve Nelson (Chairman),Dan Lockwood (President)
Logistics and Shipping
Freight Forwarding ServicesLogistic ServicesCourier ServicesLTL Trucking
Unishippers is a franchise organization connecting small businesses with shipping partners.
Unishippers was established in 1987 as a reseller of small parcel express service, and has grown into a full service freight logistics provider with over 275 offices throughout the United States.
According to the company's own published statistics, 2007 system-wide revenue exceeded $315 million and 2007 system-wide shipment volume reached 11.2 million. Unishippers is now the largest authorized reseller of DHL small parcel shipping.
Each Unishippers office is privately owned and operated. There are currently approximately 275 Unishippers franchises and a total of approximately 100,000 active customers. Individual offices may provide some or all of the following services: small parcel shipping via DHL, air and ocean freight forwarding, LTL logistics, FTL logistics, Next-flight-out (NFO) service, and more.
Unishippers Corporate Site
Categories: Transport and distribution companies | Logistics companies of the United States | Franchises | Companies established in 1987
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Zoom Corporation

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Its neutrality is disputed. Tagged since October 2008.
Its factual accuracy is disputed. Tagged since October 2008.
Zoom Corporation
Tokyo, Japan (1983)
Key people
Michihito Nozokido, president
Audio Equipment
Multi-effects, Amps, etc
Zoom is a Japanese audio company that is distributed in the U.S. under the Samson family of companies. Zoom produce effects pedals for guitars and basses, recording equipment, drum machines, among other products. Most of their products are aimed at the amateur market although they also produce some high quality rack effects units used by professionals.
Zoom first gained worldwide attention with the release of the 9002 guitar belt processor. Roughly 1.5 times the size of a cigarette pack, the 9002 was one of the smallest multi-effect devices at the time. The unit combined analog compression and pre-amp circuitry with digital effects in an attempt to substitute for the traditional effects/amplifier chain. They would later put these effects into an amp-top-box called the 9000. It came with a 5 button floor pedal, one to change the bank and then 4 preset selections within that bank. Four effects on 4 banks resulted in 16 presets that the user can edit.
Over the years, Zoom has become widely known for producing budget-friendly multi-effects. For many guitar and bass players, a Zoom unit was the first multi-effect they could afford, before they moved on to bigger and better, or discarded multi-fx altogether in favor of standalone effects pedals that are typically designed to provide just one type of sound effect. Consequently, Zoom's reputation as a company that builds high quality multi-fx has been tarnished somewhat.
Zoom has always built their products around their own microchip designs. Their ZFX-3, is a 32-bit processor that is capable of processing digital audio at 96kHz with 24-bit A/D/A conversion. As of 2006, this chip is one generation more powerful than that of direct competitors such as Boss, Line6, Yamaha and Rocktron. The current Zoom flagship model is the G9.2tt multi-fx and amp modeler.
1 Products
1.1 Effect processors
1.1.1 Guitar effect processors
1.1.2 Bass guitar effect processors
1.1.3 Acoustic guitar effect processors
1.1.4 Studio rack mountable effect processors
1.2 Digital recorders
1.3 Rhythm machines
1.4 Guitar amplifiers
2 External links
Effect processors
Guitar effect processors
Similar to the Zoom G9.2tt with omission of the "3d" pedal, second tube (valve) and effects loop. The unit also has a reduced number of foot switches and effects models.
Zoom G9.2tt
Effects processor and amplifier modelling unit. Solid steel body with switches. 120 different effects, controllable in real time via 2 sweller pedals (one of them is a "3D pedal", which can be moved vertically and horizontically in order to control two parameters with one pedal). A maximum of 10 simultaneous effects may be used. The unit has two 12AX7A preamp tubes that can amplify the signal in a tube or a solid-state based circuit. These functions are referred to as "tube energizer" and "tube accelerator", each of them utilizing one of the two tubes. The unit can simulate 28 different amp models, and altogether 43 amps and cabinets. User presets can be saved in 100 editable user patches, which exist in addition to and separately from 100 non-editable factory presets. Further features include an USB interface, MIDI In / Out, a statically-placed effects loop, 24-bit A/D/A conversion, and an auxiliary input, among others. The 9.2tt is the flagship of the G-series by Zoom.
Zoom GFX-5
Solid steel body, easy-to-tag pedals, hundreds of possible effect combinations, drum machine, sampling.
The GFX-5 has 75 different guitar effects. You can use up to 10 effects simultaneously.
The GFX-5 also includes an "Energize" feature, which is intended to emphasize upper harmonics and higher frequencies in such a way as to allow the guitarist to cut through the mix.

ZOOM GFX-8 unit
This is the flagship of the GFX series. It has solid steel dark green body with opto based pedal on the right and red LED display on the top left. It uses the Variable Architecture Modeling System (V.A.M.S ) technology. In general, there are three main internal modules: for drive, for modulation and for delay. The unit allows high level of distortion customization by using specialized software. It also allows using external distortion. The technology used in the unit does not allow full reordering of the effects but allows some of modulation effects like wah and phaser to be...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about Single Screw Extruder, Grape Seed Oil, . The products should be show more here!


I want to introduct something about Wood Sculpture Handmade Buddha Head Statuette India Art. Wood Sculpture Handmade Buddha Head Statuette India Art Model Number: 47 This is wooden carved Buddha head supported by solid chest.
For other uses, see Rococo (disambiguation).
Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and interior design. Rococo rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. It was largely supplanted by the Neoclassic style.

North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint.

The ballroom of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo

The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria): architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life
The word Rococo is seen as a combination of the French rocaille, or stone garden (refering to arranging stones in natural forms like shells), and the Italian barocco, or Baroque style. Due to Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts, some critics used the term to derogatively imply that the style was frivolous or merely modish; interestingly, when the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning "old-fashioned". However, since the mid 19th century, the term has been accepted by art historians. While there is still some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general, Rococo is now widely recognized as a major period in the development of European art.
1 Historical development
2 Rococo in different artistic modes
2.1 Furniture and decorative objects
2.2 Interior design
2.3 Painting
3 Gallery of Rococo painting
3.1 Sculpture
3.2 Music
4 Rococo "worldliness" and the Roman Catholic Church
5 Gallery
6 See also
7 Notes
8 External links
9 Further reading
Historical development
Rococo developed first in the decorative arts and interior design. Louis XV's succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the old king's reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves and natural patterns. These elements are obvious in the architectural designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Rence, court life moved away from Versailles and this artistic change became well established, first in the royal palace and then throughout French high society. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XV's regime.
The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France. The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture, exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and Fran?ois Boucher. Rococo still maintained the Baroque taste for complex forms and intricate patterns, but by this point, it had begun to integrate a variety of diverse characteristics, including a taste for Oriental designs and asymmetric compositions.
The Rococo style spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in the Catholic parts of Germany, Bohemia, and Austria, where it was merged with the lively German Baroque traditions. German Rococo was applied with enthusiasm to churches and palaces, particularly in the south, while Frederician Rococo developed in the Kingdom of Prussia. Architects often draped their interiors in clouds of fluffy white stucco. In Italy, the late Baroque styles of Borromini and Guarini set the tone for Rococo in Turin, Venice, Naples and Sicily, while the arts in Tuscany and Rome remained more wedded tlp Baroque.

Le Dejeuner by Francois Boucher, demonstrates elements of Rococo. (1739, Louvre)
In England Rococo was always thought of as the "French taste" and was never widely adopted as an architectural style, although its influence was strongly felt in such areas as silverwork, porcelain, and silks, and Thomas Chippendale transformed English furniture design through his adaptation and refinement of the style. William Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty. Though not intentionally referencing the movement, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty (1753) that the undulating lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace and beauty in art or nature (unlike the straight line or the circle in Classicism). The development of Rococo in England is considered to have been connected with the revival of interest in Gothic architecture early in the 18th century.
The beginning of the end for Rococo came in the early 1760s as figures like Voltaire and Jacques-Fran?ois Blondel began to voice their criticism of the superficiality and degeneracy of the art. Blondel decried the "ridiculous jumble of shells, dragons, reeds, palm-trees and plants" in contemporary interiors. By 1785, Rococo had passed out of fashion in France,...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about krug office furniture, pvc bath cabinets, . The Wood Sculpture Handmade Buddha Head Statuette India Art products should be show more here!


I want to introduct something about Kf-705r 16 / Kf-705rs 16 Wall Fan. Kf-705r 16 / Kf-705rs 16 Wall Fan KF-705R 16" Wall Fan > Free Neck > 120 Ribbed Grills W/ Decorated Rim > 3 Plastic Blades (PP Material) or 3 Transparent Blades (AS Material) > Micro-Switch & Remote Control * Variety Wind Mode Selected * General Wind, Natural Wind, Slumberous Mode * 0. 5 ~ 7. 5 Hours Gradual Timer > Fan color available: Light Gray Burgundy (Red) Black Dark Green (Hunter Green) Bright Orange (Lemon Yellow) Dark Blue (Navy Blue) KF-705RS 16" Wall Fan > Free Neck > 120 Ribbed Grills W/ Decorated Rim > 3 plastic Blades (PP Material) or 3 Transparent Blades (AS Material) > Oscillation (swing) is operated by Remote Control. > Micro-Switch & Remote Control * Variety Wind Mode Selected * General Wind, Najtural Wind, Slumberous Mode * 0. 5 ~ 7. 5 Hours Gradual Timer > Fan color available: Light Gray Burgundy (Red) Black Dark Green (Hunter Green) Bright Orange (Lemon Yellow) Dark Blue (Navy Blue)

Powerex Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of BC Hydro, is a leading marketer of wholesale energy products and services in western Canada and the western US, and a growing niche player in other markets across North America. In business since 1988, Powerex Corp. is headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia. Powerex Corp. buys and sells wholesale electricity, natural gas and environmental energy products and services.
Powerex Inc., a pioneer in high power semiconductor applications, Powerex offers a broad line of products, including IGBT; MOSFET Modules; Intelligent Power Modules (IPM); DIP-IPM; Module Accessories (including gate drivers and DC-DC Converters); Discrete Thyristors/SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier); Discrete Rectifiers; Thyristor and Diode Modules; Fast Recovery and Three-Phase Diode Modules; Assemblies; IGBT Assemblies; and Custom Modules. Powerex supports many markets, including transportation, AC and DC motor controls, UPS, alternative energy, medical power supplies, welding, industrial heating, electrical vehicles, aircraft and communications. Corporate offices and manufacturing facilities are located in western Pennsylvania.
Established on January 1, 1986, Powerex inc. is the result of a combination of two pioneers in the power semiconductor industry -- the Power Semiconductor Divisions of General Electric Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. With the idea of advancement toward the future, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation established an equity position in Powerex.
In 1994, Westinghouse sold its shares to General Electric and Mitsubishi Electric, the present equal majority shareholders. Components Plus
Categories: Equipment semiconductor companies | Electronics companies of Canada | Energy companies of Canada | Canadian company stubs
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Chieu Hoi

I want to introduct something about Emergency Rescue Knives / Fire Fighter Knives / Folding Knives - H364-A3. Emergency Rescue Knives / Fire Fighter Knives / Folding Knives - H364-A3 Terms of Payment: L/C,T/T Minimum Order: 1200 Piece/Pieces Packaging: Poly bag, paper box. Item No.: H364-A3 * Closed length: 4.5' * Glass breaker and seat belt / rope cutter * 420 stainless steel blade with thumb stud * Enamel medallion mounted into blue anodized aluminum handle with clip * Bead blast finish blade * Linerlock folding knife Remarks: * Different handle colors are available, such as: Blue, Red, Black, Green, etc. * You can also choose 440 or other stainless steel to make the knife blade * The knife blade can be black coated, titanium coated, bead blast finish or satin finish. * We can use other materials to make the knife handle as you request, such as G10, Micarta, Aluminum, Stainless steel, Wood, Plastic, Animal Horn or Animal Bone, etc. * Should you have any questions, please feel free to contact us! Wayeah Knife & Tool Co., Ltd. is a pr

A Chieu Hoi Bag

Safe conduct pass.
The Chi H?i Program (pronounced 'Choo Hoy', literally translated as "Open Arms"[dubious discuss]) was an initiative by the South Vietnamese to encourage defection by the Viet Cong and their supporters to the side of the Government during the Vietnam War. Defection was urged by means of a propaganda campaign, usually leaflets delivered by artillery shell or dropped over enemy-controlled areas by aircraft, or messages broadcast over areas of South Vietnam, and a number of incentives were offered to those who chose to cooperate, along with psychological warfare to break enemy morale.
To further this aim, invitations to defect, which also acted as safe conduct passes, were printed on clear plastic waterproof bags used to carry ammunition for the US soldier's M16 assault rifle. Each bag held one magazine, and was sealed up to prevent moisture from the jungle's humid climate from damaging the contents. When the magazine was needed during a firefight with the enemy, the bag would be torn open and discarded, in the hope that it would be discovered by enemy troops who would read the text and consider defection.
However, in practice this method was of little value as littering the jungle with these bags would signpost the movement of US troops to the enemy, and Viet Cong would not be keen to retain them as it would indicate their intentions and indict them as traitors; and according to the testimony of Sergeant Scott Camil during the 1971 Winter Soldier Investigation, the passes were sometimes rejected anyway, and their holders shot.
Overall, the Chieu Hoi program was considered to be successful.[citation needed] Those who surrendered were known as "Hoi Chanh", and were often integrated into allied units as Kit Carson Scouts, operating in the same area where they had been captured. Many made great contributions to the effectiveness of U.S. units, and often distinguished themselves, earning decorations as high as the Silver Star. The program was relatively inexpensive, and removed over 100,000 combatants from the field.
1 See also
2 Notes
3 References
3.1 News
3.2 Reports
4 External links
See also
Kit Carson Scouts
^ a b c Kelley, Michael P. (2002). Where We Were In Vietnam. Hellgate Press. pp.F13. ISBN 1-55571-625-3.
^ Testimony of Scott Camil, Winter Soldier Investigation
"Moving Forward". TIME. 1966-09-23.,9171,842793,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
"Allies' Aims & Hopes, In War & Peace". TIME. 1966-11-04.,9171,842925,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
"Charlie, Come Home!". TIME. 1967-02-10.,9171,840822,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
"Coming On Over". TIME. 1967-04-14.,9171,836946,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
"After Crossing Over". TIME. 1968-08-23.,9171,838610,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
Jenkins, Brian Michael (2005-06-26). "Strategy: Political warfare neglected". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
Gerwehr, Scott; Nina Hachigian (2005-08-25). "In Iraq's Prisons, Try a Little Tenderness". New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
Andrade, Dale (2006-11-03). "Too Soon To Rule Out Amnesty". Washington Post. pp.A21. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
Carrier, J.M.; C.A.H. Thomson (May 1966) (PDF). Viet Cong Motivation And Morale: The Special Case Of Chieu Hoi. RAND. RM-4830-2-ISA/ARPA.
Kellen, Konrad (September 1970) (PDF). Conversations With Enemy Soldiers In Late 1968/Early 1969: A Study Of Motivation And Morale. RAND. RM-6131-1-ISA/ARPA.
Koch, J.A. (January 1973) (PDF). The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1963-1971 (DECLASSIFIED). RAND. R-1172-ARPA.
Long, Austin (2006) (PDF). On 'Other War': Lessons from Five Decades of RAND Counterinsurgency Research. RAND. ISBN 0-8330-3926-1.
External links
The Chieu Hoi Program of Vietnam
Chieu Hoi Leaflet Collection
Vietnam War "Flag" Safe Conduct Passes
Vietnam War Chieu Hoi
Categories: Vietnam War | Psychological warfare | Counter-insurgency | Military operations of the Vietnam War
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Mash ingredients

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Malted barley - a primary mash ingredient
Mash ingredients or grain bill are those materials used in brewing from which a wort can be obtained for fermenting into alcohol. The act of creating and extracting fermentable and non-fermentable sugars and flavor components from grain by steeping it in hot water, and then allowing it to rest at specific temperature ranges in order to activate enzymes that will convert the starches to sugars is called mashing. The sugars, having been run off from the mash ingredients, will later be converted to alcohol and other fermentation products by yeast in the brewing process.
The primary type of mash ingredient is grain that has been malted. Modern-day recipes generally consist of a large percentage of a light malt and, optionally, smaller percentages of more flavorful or highly-colored types of malt. The former is called "base malt"; the latter, "specialty malts".
The grain bill of a beer may vary widely in the number of ingredients. For example, Abbeydale Brewery's "Absolution", a pale ale, uses only one mash ingredient: pale malt; meanwhile, Salopian Brewing Company's "Entire Butt", a black porter, declares the following fourteen ingredients in its grain bill: pale malt, lager malt, wheat malt, pale and dark crystal malts, pale and dark chocolate malts, caramalt, torrefied wheat, amber malt, brown malt, and malted oats.
1 Variables
2 Malts
2.1 Pale malt
2.2 Mild malt
2.3 Stout malt
2.4 Amber malt
2.5 Brown malt
2.6 Chocolate malt
2.7 Black malt
2.8 Crystal malt
2.9 Distillers malt
2.10 Peated malt
2.11 Pilsener malt
2.12 Vienna malt
2.13 Munich malt
2.14 Rauchmalz
2.15 Acid malt
2.16 Unmalted barley
3 Other grains
3.1 Wheat
3.1.1 Wheat malt
3.1.2 Torrefied wheat
3.1.3 Raw wheat
3.1.4 Wheat flour
3.2 Rye
3.3 Sorghum & Millet
3.4 Rice & Corn
4 Non-grain solids
5 Syrups and extracts
6 Regional differences
6.1 Britain
6.2 Continental Europe
6.3 The United States
6.4 Belgium
7 See also
8 References
8.1 Notes
8.2 Bibliography
8.3 External links
Further information: Mashing
Each particular ingredient has its own flavor which contributes to the final character of the beverage. In addition, different ingredients carry other characteristics, not directly relating to the flavor, which may dictate some of the choices made in brewing: nitrogen content, diastatic power, color, modification, and conversion.
The color of a grain or product is evaluated by the American Society of Brewing Chemists Standard Reference Method (denoted both SRM and ASBC, although the two methods are equivalent); the older Lovibond series 52 standard, (), which corresponds closely to SRM; or by the European Brewery Convention (EBC) standard. The British Institute of Brewing (IOB) standard was formally retired in 1991, but is still occasionally seen in the United Kingdom.
Diastatic power for a grain is measured in degrees Lintner (intner or , although the latter can conflict with the symbol for Lovibond color); or in Europe by Windisch-Kolbach units (K).
The oldest and most predominant ingredient in brewing is barley, which has been used in beer-making for thousands of years. Modern brewing predominantly uses malted barley for its enzymatic power, but ancient Babylonian recipes indicate that, without the ability to malt grain in a controlled fashion, baked bread was simply soaked in water. Malted barley dried at a sufficiently low temperature contains enzymes such as amylase which convert starch into sugar. Therefore, sugars can be extracted from the barley's own starches simply by soaking the grain in water at a controlled temperature; this is mashing.
Pale malt
Pale malt is the basis of pale ale and bitter and the precursor in production of most other British beer malts. Dried at temperatures sufficiently low to preserve all the brewing enzymes in the grain, it is light in color and, today, the cheapest barley malt available due to mass production. It can be used as a base malt, that is, as the malt constituting the majority of the grist, in many styles of beer. Typically, English pale malts are kilned at 95-105. Color ASBC 2-3/EBC 5-7. Diastatic power (DP) 45intner.
Mild malt
Mild malt is often used as the base malt for mild ale, and is similar in color to pale malt. Mild malt is kilned at slightly higher temperatures than pale malt in order to provide a less neutral, rounder flavor generally described as "nutty". ASBC 3/EBC 6.
Stout malt
Stout malt is sometimes seen as a base malt for stout beer; light in color, it is prepared so as to maximize diastatic power in order to...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about house hold appliance, wood screw extractor, . The Electric Kettle products should be show more here!

Compressed-air engine

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(Redirected from Air engine)
A Compressed-air engine is a Pneumatic actuator that creates useful work by expanding compressed air. They have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand held turbines up to several hundred horsepower. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others use turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the incoming air, or the engine itself. Some took this a stage further and burned fuel in the cylinder or turbine, forming a type of internal combustion engine.
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5.2 EngineAir
5.3 K'Airmobiles
5.4 MDI
5.5 Quasiturbine
5.6 Regusci
5.7 Team Psycho-Active
6 Karts
7 Efficient air engines
8 See also
9 External links
10 References
Impact wrenches, drills, die grinders, dental drills and other pneumatic tools use a variety of air engines or motors. These include vane type pumps, turbines and pistons.
Most successful early forms of self propelled torpedoes used high pressure compressed air, although this was superseded by internal or external combustion engines, steam engines, or electric motors.
Compressed air engines were used in trams and shunters, and eventually found a successful niche in mining locomotives, although eventually they were replaced by electric trains, underground[1]. Over the years designs increased in complexity, resulting in a triple expansion engine with air to air reheaters between each stage [2].
Transport category airplanes, such as commercial airliners, use compressed air starters to start the main engines. The air is supplied by the load compressor of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit, or by ground equipment.
Main article: Compressed air vehicle
There is currently some interest in developing air cars. Several engines have been proposed for these, although none have demonstrated the performance and long life needed for personal transport.
The Energine Corporation is a South Korean company that delivers fully-assembled cars running on a hybrid compressed air and electric engine. The compressed-air engine is used to activate an alternator, which extends the autonomous operating capacity of the car.
EngineAir, an Australian company, is making a rotary engine powered by compressed air, called The Di Pietro motor. The Di Pietro motor concept is based on a rotary piston. Different from existing rotary engines, the Di Pietro motor uses a simple cylindrical rotary piston (shaft driver) which rolls, with little friction, inside the cylindrical stator. [3]
It can be used in boat, cars, carriers and other vehicles. Only 1 psi (? 6,8 kPa) of pressure is needed to overcome the friction. [4] [5]
K'Airmobiles vehicles use a compressed-air engine known as the K'Air, developed in France by a small group of researchers
These engines have a consumption of compressed air of less than 120 L/min., although developing a dynamic push able to reach 4kN.
The technical concept of the K'Air pneumatic engines returns to direct conversion of what makes the fundamental characteristic of compressed air, namely:
the pushing force of compressed air is exclusively exploited for conversion into kinetic energy of translation,
itself is simultaneously converted into induced power of rotation of the axis and
thus gives to the engine a particularly imposing torque while needing only a very low uel consumption.
To simplify, one can compare the principle to that of the rotary jacks:
the energy of the fluid (compressed air) is directly transformed into rotational movement;
the double-acting jacks involve a pinion-toothed rack system;
the cyclic angle of rotation can vary between 90 and 360;
it supports hydraulic supercharging systems.
Main article: Motor Development International
In the original Nre air engine, one piston compresses air from the atmosphere to mix with the stored compressed air (which will cool drastically as it expands). This mixture drives the second piston, providing the actual engine power. MDI's engine works with constant torque, and the only way to change the torque to the wheels is to use a pulley transmission of constant variation, losing some efficiency. When vehicle is stopped, MDI's engine had to be on and working, losing energy. In 2001-2004 MDI switched to a design similar to that described in Regusci's patents (see below), which date back to 1990[6].
Main article: Quasiturbine
The Pneumatic Quasiturbine engine is a compressed air pistonless rotary engine using a rhomboidal-shaped...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about aviation training center, Bluetooth Phone Tools, . The Quilt, Comforter,Bedding Set, products should be show more here!

TV tuner card

I want to introduct something about .

Hauppauge WinTV TV tuner card
A TV tuner card is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk.
1 Variants
1.1 Analog TV tuners
1.2 Digital TV tuners
1.3 Hybrid tuners
1.4 Combo tuners
2 Manufacturers
3 See also

A DVB-S2 tuner card

D-Link external TV tuner
TV tuners are available in a number of different interfaces: as PCI bus expansion card, PCI Express (PCIe) bus, PCMCIA, Mini PCI Express, PCMCIA Express or USB devices. Ethernet-connected devices also exist (HDHomeRun) and (HAVA). In addition, some video cards double as TV tuners, notably the ATI All-In-Wonder series. The card contains a tuner and an analog-to-digital converter (collectively known as the analog front end) along with demodulation and interface logic. Some very cheap cards lack an onboard processor and, like a Winmodem, rely on the system's CPU for demodulation.
There are currently four kinds of tuner card on the market:
Analog TV tuners
Cheaper models output a raw video stream, suitable for real-time viewing but ideally requiring some sort of compression if it is to be recorded. More expensive models encode the signal to Motion JPEG or MPEG, relieving the main CPU of this load. Many cards also have analog input (composite video or S-Video) and many also provide FM radio reception.
Digital TV tuners
Digital TV is broadcasted as an MPEG-2 stream, so no encoder is necessary; instead, the digital cards either provide the whole MPEG transport stream or extract the individual (audio and video) elementary streams.
Hybrid tuners
A hybrid tuner has one tuner that can be configured to act as an analog tuner or a digital tuner. Switching in between the systems is fairly easy, but can not be done immediately. The card operates as a digital tuner or an analog tuner until reconfigured.
Combo tuners
This is similar to a hybrid tuner, except there are two separate tuners on the card. One can watch analog while recording digital, or vice versa. The card operates as an analog tuner and a digital tuner simultaneously. The advantages over two separate cards are cost and utilization of expansion slots in the computer. As many regions around the world convert from analog to digital broadcasts, these tuners are gaining popularity.
Like the analog cards, the Hybrid and Combo tuners can have specialized chips on the tuner card to perform the encoding, or leave this task to the CPU. The tuner cards with this 'hardware encoding' are generally thought of as being higher quality.[citation needed] Small USB tuner sticks have become more popular in 2006 and 2007 and are expected to increase in popularity. These small tuners generally do not have hardware encoding due to size and heat constraints.
While most TV tuners are limited to the radio frequencies and video formats used in the country of sale, many TV tuners used in computers use DSP, so a firmware upgrade is often all that's necessary to change the supported video format. Many newer TV tuners have flash memory big enough to hold the firmwares for decoding several different video formats, making it possible to use the tuner in many countries without having to flash the firmware. However, while it is generally possible to flash a card from one analog format to another due to the similarities, it is generally not possible to flash a card from one digital format to another due to differences in decode logic necessary.
Many TV tuners can function as FM radios; this is because there are similarities between broadcast television and FM radio. The FM radio spectrum is close to (or even inside) that used by VHF terrestrial TV broadcasts. And many broadcast television systems around the world use FM audio. So listening to an FM radio station is simply a case of configuring existing hardware.
ADS Tech
ATI Technologies
AVerMedia Technologies
Compro Technology
EXCEL Cinema
GALAXY Technology
Gigabyte Technology
Monsoon HAVA
Hewlett Packard
Items Technology
Micro-Star International (MSI)
Nebula Electronics
NVidia (discontinued)
Pinnacle Systems
Sapphire Technology
Vista View
See also
Frame grabber
MythTV TV Tuner cards list [2]
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X10 Wireless Technology

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X10 Wireless Technology, Inc. is an American subsidiary of a Hong Kong-Bermuda company best known for marketing wireless video cameras using controversial pop-under advertisements. It was founded in 1999 in Kent, Washington.
The company's many pop-under windows containing flashing animations in the 2001-2003 advertising campaign for its flagship product, the Amazing X10 Camera, proved to be counter-productive[citation needed] and were seen by many as a nuisance rather than a viable marketing tool[1]. For many Internet users, X10 came to epitomize invasive and bothersome Internet marketing, and instructions for disabling the JavaScript technology used by these windows were circulated.[citation needed]
1 History
1.1 1974
1.2 1978
1.3 1988
1.4 1989
1.5 1995
1.6 1996
2 Legal and financial problems
3 Parodies
4 References
5 External links
X10 sprang from a small engineering company in Scotland called Pico Electronics, Ltd. Pico now fits under the umbrella of X10 Ltd. X10 was a founding member of the Home Automation and Networking Association and is sometimes considered the founding father of the home automation industry.
X-10 products were introduced to the American Public through Radio Shack. Soon after, X-10 products were also sold at Sears, Roebuck.
Under the One-For-All brand, X10 started manufacturing universal remotes for Universal Electronics, Inc. (UEI). The operation grew so large that soon X10 was manufacturing 1 million remotes per month. X10 now makes remotes for many original equipment manufacturers (including Philips) and has the best infrared (IR) code library in the business. This makes X10 one of the largest manufacturers of universal remotes in the world.
X10 introduces a self-installed wireless security system: the SS5400.
X10 sets up ORCA Monitoring Services in Seattle, Washington to handle the monitoring of their security systems as well as the ones X10 sells to Radio Shack and other vendors.
X10's website goes live on the Web at on December 26th, 1996.
Legal and financial problems
The company was sued in October 2003 by Advertisement, who created their pop-up advertisements, for not paying advertising fees as promised. X10 had to pay Advertisement Banners more than US$4.3 million in compensation.[2]
X10 made an attempt to go public in 2001 using the ticker symbol XTEN. They aborted this plan[3] after a copy of Escape from Paradise, a book which revealed that X10's owner Hin Chew Chung had been under house arrest for over a year in Brunei, was sent to the Securities and Exchange Commission. The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Washington in 2003,[4] and the bankruptcy was confirmed by the Court in April 2005.
Due to the pervasiveness of the X10 ads, and the low opinion of them that many Internet users had, there have been several parodies of them.
Something Awful created a page satirizing the design sense of the company,[5] as well as a mock interview with the inventor of the X10 Camera[6]
In one website's humorous timeline of Internet history, "X10 sells its first camera" is a future event that occurs in 2003, one to two years after the timeline is published.[7]
On the KOMPRESSOR album Crush Television there is a song titled We Must Destroy X10 about the X10 ads.
^ Dugan, Sean (2002-03-01). "Brought to you by...".,1,2,1,0301,02.html.
^ "Brothers sue Net company, win $4.3 million". CNN. 2003-10-21. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
^ "X10 Wireless Technology's letter of public offer withdrawal to SEC". Hoover's. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
^ Festa, Paul (October 22, 2003). "X10 files for Chapter 11". CNET
^ "The Amazing 10X Home Surveillance Kit!". Something Awful. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
^ "Unsung Heroes of the Internet". Something Awful. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
^ "The Lemon: History of the Internet". (defunct). Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
External links
Jeff Dorsch (2005). X10 Wireless Technology, Inc. company information. Hoover's.
X10 Wireless Technology company website
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Video In Video Out

I want to introduct something about PIONEER PDP5050HD 50 Inch PureVision Plasma Televi. PIONEER PDP5050HD 50 Inch PureVision Plasma Televi Product Description Pioneer's 50-inch, digital cable ready PDP-5050HD PureVision plasma TV represents the state-of-the-art from head to toe. Its perfectly flat, high-contrast, high-brightness (1,000 cd/m2) display benefits from high-quality engineering and innovative Pioneer enhancement technologies. With a plasma screen you get vivid colors like you've never seen before, extremely wide viewing angles (wider, even, than those of most LCD screens), and easy placement due to a plasma monitor's slim profile--the PDP-5050HD is a mere 3.7 inches deep, perfect for desk or wall mounting. Brightness tends to be extremely uniform across plasma screens, which are also impervious to the picture distortion and negative color balances that afflict CRT monitors when placed near lighting or sound systems. The PDP-5050HD is packaged with a stand-alone media receiver equipped with an ATSC terrestrial HDTV tuner and a full set of interfaces, including a next-generation High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI). This all-
Video In Video Out (VIVO)
A 6-connector VIVO splitter cable. From left to right: S-Video In, Component Pb out, Component Pr out, Component Y out/Composite out, Composite in, S-Video Out
Analog video connector
Production history
Various graphics card manufacturers
Hot pluggable
Video signal
At least up to 1080p
Mini-DIN 9
Pin out
VIVO port using standard (left) and non-standard (right) Mini-DIN
Video In Video Out, usually seen as the acronym VIVO (commonly pronounced vee-voh), is a graphics card port which enables some video cards to have bidirectional (input and output) video transfer through a Mini-DIN connector, usually of the 9-pin variety, and a specialised splitter cable (which can sometimes also transfer sound).
VIVO is found predominantly on high-end ATI video cards, although a few high-end NVIDIA video cards also have this port. VIVO on these graphics cards typically supports composite, S-Video, and Component as outputs, and composite and S-Video as inputs. Many other video cards only support component and/or S-Video outputs to complement VGA or DVI, typically using a component breakout cable and an S-Video cable. It should be noted that while component-out operation supports high definition resolutions, it does not support the HDCP standard which would be required for official HDTV support as set out by the EICTA. Also, a computer using VIVO must have software that can handle an input signal. For example, in the case of Nvidia GeForce series 6 and 7 video card users this means downloading Nvidia's WDM drivers.

A graphics card with VGA, VIVO and DVI outputs
Some practical uses of VIVO include being able to display multimedia stored on a computer on a TV, and being able to connect a DVD player or video game console to a computer while continuing to allow viewing via a TV monitor. However, VIVO can not itself decode broadcast signals from any source, and so, like tunerless HDTV sets and composite monitors, additional equipment is required to be able to show broadcast TV programs.
Some manufacturers enable their version of the VIVO port to also transfer sound.
On Windows XP computers that use GeForce video cards with Scalable Link Interface (SLI) mode enabled, using a TV to display part of the desktop via VIVO is disabled, just as dual-monitor mode is disabled. (Confusingly, some distorted imagery may be visible on a properly-connected VIVO-driven television display at boot-up, however.) For this reason, the VIVO option is often disregarded by gamers, as it is also (of course) by the many who have no need to connect their computer to their TV.
See also
DIN connector
Mini-DIN connector
Composite video
Component video
ATI Technologies
External links
Plan of assembly of a cable VIVO
S-video to composite video adapter

vAudio and video connectors
Single conductor audio
Binding post Banana plug Fahnestock clip
Analog audio
TRS XLR DIN/ Mini-DIN D-sub Speakon
Digital audio
BNC S/PDIF TosLink XLR D-sub
DVI/ Mini-DVI/ Micro-DVI DMS-59 VGA/ Mini-VGA DFP BNC DIN/ Mini-DIN DB13W3 D-Terminal
Audio and Video
RCA ADC Belling-Lee DisplayPort/ Mini DisplayPort EVC F HDMI P&D AV Multi MultiAV SCART TRS
Visual charts
List of video connectors

vAudio and Video Interfaces and Connectors
Audio Only
Interface: PC System Design Guide Connectors: TRS 3.5mm
Interface: S/PDIF Connectors: RCA Jack (Coaxial), TOSLINK (Optical), BNC
Video Only
Interface: VGA Connectors: DB-15 ? Interface: Composite Connectors: RCA jack yellow ? Interface: S-Video Connectors: Mini-DIN 4 Pin ? Interface: Component Connectors: RCA Jacks X 3 ? Interface: Composite, S-Video, and Component Connectors: VIVO using Mini-DIN 9 Pin
Digital andAnalog
Interface: DVI Connectors: DVI
Video and Audio
Interface: HDMI Connectors: HDMI connector ? Interface: DisplayPort Connectors: DisplayPort connector
Categories: Analog video connectors | Film and video technology | Audiovisual connectors | DIN | Computer hardware(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about DVB TV Receiver, catv indoor receiver, . The PIONEER PDP5050HD 50 Inch PureVision Plasma Televi products should be show more here!

RCA connector

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RCA Plugs for composite video (yellow) and stereo audio (white and red)
An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or Cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video market. The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s to allow mono phonograph players to be connected to amplifiers.
For many other applications it began to replace the older jack plugs used in the audio world when component high fidelity started becoming popular in the 1950s.
The corresponding plug is called an RCA plug or a phono plug. The latter is often confused with a phone plug which refers to a jack plug or TRS connector.
1 Uses
2 Disadvantages
3 Origin
4 Color coding in consumer equipment
5 References
6 See also

RCA jacks, here used for component video output.
In the most normal usage, cables have a standard plug on each end, consisting of a central male connector, surrounded by a ring. The ring is often segmented for flexibility. Devices mount the jack, consisting of a central hole with a ring of metal around it. The ring is slightly smaller in diameter and longer than the ring on the plug, allowing the plug's ring to fit tightly over it. The jack has a small area between the outer and inner rings which is filled with an insulator, typically plastic (very early versions, or those made for use as RF connectors used ceramic).
As with many other connectors, the RCA has been adopted for other uses than originally intended, including as a power connector, an RF connector, and as a connector for loudspeaker cables. Its use as a connector for composite video signals is extremely common, but provides poor impedance matching. RCA connectors and cable are also commonly used to carry S/PDIF-formatted digital audio, with plugs colored orange to differentiate them from other typical connections.
Connections are made by pushing the cable's plug into the female jack on the device. The signal-carrying pin protrudes from the plug, and often comes into contact with the socket before the grounded rings meet, resulting in loud hum or buzz if the audio components are powered while making connections. Continuous noise can occur if the plug partially falls out of the jack, breaking ground connection but not the signal. Some variants of the plug, especially cheaper versions, also give very poor grip and contact between the ground sheaths due to their lack of flexibility.
They are often color-coded, yellow for composite video, red for the right channel, and white or black for the left channel of stereo audio. This trio (or pair) of jacks can be found on the back of almost all audio and video equipment. At least one set is usually found on the front panel of modern TV sets, to facilitate connection of camcorders (through 3.5mm Jack to 3 RCA, also called Mini RCA plug), digital cameras, and video gaming consoles. Although nearly all audio-visual connectors, including audio, composite and component video, and S/PDIF audio can use identical 75? cables, sales of special-purpose cables for each use have proliferated. Varying cable quality means that a cheap line-level audio cable might not successfully transfer component video or digital audio signals due to impedance mismatch and poor shielding quality (causing signal-to-noise ratio to be too low). Cables should meet the S/PDIF specification as defined by the international standard IEC 60958-3 for assured performance.
The male plug has a center pin which is 3.70 mm in diameter, and is surrounded by an outer shell which is 8.25 mm in diameter

"Bullet plug" variation. Notice the hollow center conductor and the single pin point for the return signal.
One problem with the RCA jack system is that each signal requires its own plug. Even the simple case of attaching a cassette deck may need four of them, two for stereo input, two for stereo output. In any common setup this quickly leads to a mess of cables, which is made worse if one considers more complex signals like component video (a total of three for video and two for analog audio or one for digital coaxial audio).
There have been numerous attempts to introduce combined audio/video connectors for direct signals, but in the analog realm none of these have ever become universal, except in Europe where the SCART connector is very successful. For a time the 5-pin DIN plug was popular for bi-directional stereo connection between A/V equipment, but it has been entirely displaced on modern consumer devices. Though RF modulators inherently transmit combined A/V signals in video applications, they depend on broadcast television systems and RF connectors which are not universal worldwide; RF signals are also generally inferior to direct signals due to...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about electric power connectors, pe rt connectors, . The Industrial Plug,Socket and Connector products should be show more here!

Button cell

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(Redirected from Watch battery)
Please help improve this article by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (March 2007)

Type CR2032 watch battery (lithium anode, 3V, 20.0mm 3.2mm)
A watch battery, button cell, silver button cell, or coin cell is a small form-factor battery designed for use in wrist watches, pocket calculators, hearing aids, and similar compact portable electronics products. They are compact and have long life. They are usually a single cell with a nominal voltage between 1.5 and 3 V. Common anode materials are zinc or lithium; common cathode materials are manganese dioxide, silver oxide, carbon monofluoride, cupric oxide or mercuric oxide. The cylindrical sides of these types of batteries is part of the positive (+) terminal.
1 Type designation
1.1 Electrochemical system
1.2 Package size
1.3 Final letters
2 Other package markings
3 Common applications
4 Rechargeable variants
5 Other chemical compositions
6 See also
7 References
Type designation
International standard IEC 60086-3 defines an alphanumeric coding system for watch batteries.
Electrochemical system
The first letter identifies the electrochemical system used in the battery, which also implies a nominal voltage:
Positive electrode
Negative electrode
Manganese dioxide
Silver oxide
Manganese dioxide
Carbon monofluoride
Copper oxide
The "C"-type 3-V lithium cells are today the most commonly-used type in quartz watches, calculators, small PDA devices, and computer motherboard clocks.
Package size

4.5-Volt, D, C, AA, AAA, 9-Volt, SR41/AG3, SR44/AG13 cells
Its package's size is identified by a three-to-four digit code, preceded by the letter "R" to indicate a round cell. The first 12 digits indicate the outer breadth of the battery (in millimeters, rounded down), and the last two digits indicate the overall height (in tenths of millimeters, rounded down). Examples:
CR2032: 20 mm diameter, 3.2 mm height
SR516: 5.8 mm diameter, 1.6 mm height
ISO/IEC 83-3 lists the following diameter codes:
4 = 4.8+0?0.15mm
5 = 5.8+0?0.15mm
6 = 6.8+0?0.15mm
7 = 7.9+0?0.15mm
9 = 9.5+0?0.15mm
10 = 10.0+0?0.20mm
11 = 11.6+0?0.20mm
12 = 12.5+0?0.25mm
16 = 16+0?0.25mm
20 = 20+0?0.25mm
23 = 23+0?0.50mm
24 = 24.5+0?0.50mm
The following height codes are used with 1624 mm diameter batteries:
12 = 1.20+0?0.20mm
16 = 1.60+0?0.20mm
20 = 2.00+0?0.25mm
25 = 2.50+0?0.50mm
30 = 3.00+0?0.50mm
36 = 3.60+0?0.50mm
50 = 5.00+0?0.50mm
Final letters
After the package code, the following additional letters may optionally appear in the type designation to indicate the electrolyte used:
S: sodium hydroxide electrolyte
P: potassium hydroxide electrolyte
no letter: organic electrolyte
An appended letter "W" states that this battery complies with all the requirements of the IEC 86-3 standard for watch batteries.
Other package markings
Apart from the type code described in the preceding section, watch batteries should also be marked with
the name or trademark of the manufacturer or supplier;
the polarity (+);
the date of manufacturing.
The manufacturing date can be abbreviated to the last digit of the year, followed a digit or letter indicating the month, where O, Y, and Z are used for October, November and December, respectively (e.g., 01 = January 1990 or January 2000, 9Y = November 1999).
Common applications
Quartz wristwatches, both digital and analog.
Hearing aids
Some remote controls, especially for keyless entry
Backup power for personal computer real time clocks and BIOS configuration data.
Small PDA devices
Various electronic toys (tamagotchi)
Laser pointers
Small LED flashlights are commonly powered by three button (silver-oxide) cells in series.
Battery-operated children's books
Security tokens
Red dot sights and electronic spotting scopes
Manual cameras with light meters, such as the Pentax K1000
Rechargeable variants
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Housing in Japan

I want to introduct something about .

This building is public housing provided by the government of Tokyo.

A house with an old-style thatched roof near Mount Mitake, Tokyo.
Housing in Japan includes modern and traditional styles. Two patterns of residences are predominant in contemporary Japan: the single-family detached house and the multiple-unit building, either owned by an individual or corporation and rented as apartments to tenants, or owned by occupants. In Japan, multiple-unit blocks are referred to as one of two types: 1) Apaato (?????older buildings, which are usually only a few stories in height, without a central secure entrance 2) Manshon (?????) modern buildings with multiple floors, elevators, and a communal secure gate, with centralised postboxes; they are usually more sturdily built than aparto, normally of reinforced concrete (RC) construction[1]. Additional kinds of housing, especially for unmarried people, include boarding houses (which are popular among college students), dormitories (common in companies), and barracks (for members of the Self-Defense Forces, police and some other public employees).
1 Housing statistics
2 Interior design
2.1 Traditional homes
2.2 Modern homes
2.3 Genkan
2.4 Toilet
2.5 Kitchen
2.6 Bathroom
2.7 Washitsu
2.8 One room mansion
3 Utilities
3.1 Heating
3.2 Electricity
3.3 Security
4 Automobiles
5 Construction
5.1 Construction materials
5.2 Housing regulations
6 Living patterns
7 Home ownership
8 Home and apartment rental
8.1 Guest Houses
9 Company housing
10 Traditional housing
11 Homelessness
12 References
13 See also
14 External links
Housing statistics
Figures from the 2003 Housing and Land Survey conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications indicate that Japan had 53,891,000 housing units at the time. Of these, 46,863,000 (87.0%) were occupied and 7,028,000 (13.0%) unoccupied. Of the occupied units, 28,666,000 (61.2%) were owned by the resident household, 45,258,000 units (96.6%) were used exclusively for living and 1,605,000 units (3.4%) were used both for living and commercial purposes. The average number of rooms per unit of housing was 4.77, the average total floor area in was 94.85square meters (28.69 tsubo; 1,021.0sqft) and the average number of people per room was 0.56.[2] Of the units used exclusively for living, 10,893,000 (24.1%) were equipped with an automatic smoke detector. As of 2003, 17,180,000 housing units (36.7%) are classified by the Japan Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication as being located in urban areas while 27,553,000 housing units (58.8%) are located in rural areas [3]
Interior design
Traditional homes
Traditional Japanese housing does not have a designated utility for each room aside from the entrance area (genkan, ??), kitchen, bathroom, and toilet. Any room can be a living room, dining room, study, or bedroom. This is possible because all the necessary furniture is portable, being stored in oshiire, a small section of the house used for storage. It is important to note that in Japanese, living room is expressed as i-ma, living "space". This is because the size of a room can be changed by altering the partitioning. Large traditional houses often have only one ima (living room/space) under the roof, while kitchen, bathroom, and toilet are attached on the side of the house as extensions.
Somewhat similar to modern offices, partitions within the house are created by fusuma, sliding doors made from wood and paper, which are portable and easily removed. Fusuma seal each partition from top to bottom so it can create a mini room within the house. On the edge of a house are r?ka, wooden floored passages, that are similar to hallways. R?ka and ima are partitioned by sh?ji, sliding and portable doors that are also made from paper and wood. Unlike fusuma, paper used for sh?ji are very thin so outside light can pass through into the house. This was before glass was used for sliding doors. R?ka and outside of the house are either partitioned by walls or portable wooden boards that are used to seal the house at night. Extended roofs protect the r?ka from getting wet when it rains, except during typhoon season where the house gets sealed completely. Roofs of traditional houses in Japan are made of wood and clay, with tiles or thatched areas on top.
For large gatherings, these partitions are removed to create one large meeting room. During a normal day, partitions can create much smaller and more manageable living spaces. Therefore, kitchen, bathroom, toilet, and genkan with one multipurpose living space create one complete Japanese housing unit. However, the bathroom, toilet, and even kitchen can be communal. (See Sent?.) Therefore, the minimum...(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about multi mode attenuator, nightlight pest repeller, . The products should be show more here!

Display Data Channel

I want to introduct something about .
The Display Data Channel or DDC is a digital connection between a computer display and a graphics adapter that allows the display to communicate its specifications to the adapter. The standard was created by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA).
1 Mechanical
2 Electrical
3 Logical
4 Enhanced Display Data Channel (E-DDC)
6 Disabling DDC/CI
7 VESA Display Data Channel
8 References
9 External links
The DDC link is carried on three pins data, clock and ground in a 15-pin VGA connector, a DVI connector or an HDMI connector.
The current version of DDC, called DDC2B, is based on the I2C bus. This is a serial bus that allows multiple bus masters, although DDC2B allows only one master the graphics adapter. The monitor (e.g. a CRT or LCD) contains a read-only memory (ROM) chip programmed by the manufacturer with information about the graphics modes that the monitor can display.
8-bit I2C addressing is used when communicating with the memory in the monitor limiting the memory size to 28 bytes = 256 bytes = 2kbits. A 24C02 EEPROM would be suitable for use in the monitor.
The data in the monitor's ROM is held in a standard format called extended display identification data (EDID). This format is defined by VESA.
Enhanced Display Data Channel (E-DDC)
This version incorporated VESA DDC version 3 standard. Major changes were the addition of the E-DDC protocols, removal of DDC1 protocol and clarification to the DDC power requirements.
In Version 1 Revision 1, scope has been expanded to encompass usage in consumer electronic products and video interfaces other than VGA with text clarified in several places. Support for the P&D and FPDI-2 standards has been removed.
DDC/CI (CI = command interface) is an extension to DDC specified by VESA in August 1998. It allows a computer with a suitably designed graphics adapter to adjust monitor parameters such as brightness and color balance, or to initiate degaussing. DDC/CI monitors are sometimes supplied with an external color sensor, to allow automatic calibration of the monitor's color balance. Some tilting DDC/CI monitors support an auto pivot function, where a rotation sensor in the monitor enables the operating system to keep the display upright as the monitor is moved between its portrait and landscape positions.
The latest version of the specification is "Display Data Channel Command Interface (DDC/CI) Standard, Version 1.1", October 2004.[1]
Specific command used to control monitors are defined in Monitor Control Command Set (MCCS) Standard.
Disabling DDC/CI
On Microsoft Windows (Versions XP and above), there is no software-provided option to disable plug and play monitor detection. This causes problems with computer/monitor switching applications and causes computer games to select display resolutions higher than the monitor is physically capable of displaying resulting in a garbled display.
In these circumstances, it may be necessary to remove pin 12 from the monitor VGA cable, to disable plug and play monitor detection. This allows display resolution to be selected manually and not overridden when the display adapter is removed and reinserted or a KVM switch is operated.
On XFree based systems (Linux, BSD*,...) it's possible to disable DDC by adding an option to the section "Device" in /etc/X11/xorg.conf similar to:Option "NoDDCValue"
orOption "DDC" "No"
success can vary depending on the graphics card (Tested with the VIA Xorg driver). That could solve problems with buggy drivers or software.
VESA Display Data Channel
VESA Display Data Channel (or DDC) is a VESA standard that defines how to read certain pins in a standard SVGA monitor to query the monitor's capabilities.
Prior to the DDC, the SVGA cable included three pins that were used for this purpose, known as ID0, ID1, and ID2. These were attached to resistors to pull one or more of them high, allowing for the definition of up to seven monitor types (all zero meant "no monitor"). However ID2 was not used, so the standard defined only three monitors; monochrome with resolution of less than 1024768, color with resolution of less than 1024768, and color with 1024768.
The introduction of DDC dramatically improved the capabilities of the system. Instead of using the pins to define the monitor, the purpose of the pins was changed and ID1 was used as a serial line. Whenever the monitor received a vertical sync signal (every 60th of a second or so) it would write out its capabilities onto the ID1 pin. Up to 128 bytes of data, stored in compact format called EDID, could be sent to the graphics card in this fashion.
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Wednesday, May 6, 2009


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MG Cars
Parent company
British Motor Corporation
1955-1962101,081 made
Abingdon, England
Sports car
Body style(s)
2-door roadster2-door coupe
FR layout
94in (2388mm) [1]
156in (3962mm) [1]
58in (1473mm) [1]
50in (1270mm) [1]
Curb weight
1988 pounds (902 kg)
The MGA is a sports car produced by MG division of the British Motor Corporation from 1955 to 1962.
The MGA replaced the older T-type cars and represented a complete styling break from the older vehicles. The car was officially launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show of 1955. It was replaced by the MGB when production ceased in July 1962. Through that time, BMC sold 101,081 units, the vast majority of which were exported with only 5869 cars sold on the home market, the highest export percentage of any British car.
The design dates back to 1952 when MG designer Syd Enever created a streamlined body for George Philips' TD Le Mans car. The problem with this car was the high seating position of the driver because of the limitations of using the TD chassis. A new chassis was designed with the side members further apart and the floor attached to the bottom rather than the top of the frame sections. A prototype was built and shown to the BMC chairman Leonard Lord. Lord turned down the idea of producing the new car as he had just signed a deal with Donald Healey to produce Austin-Healey cars two weeks before. Falling sales of the traditional MG models caused a change of mind and the car, initially to be called the UA-series, was brought back. As it was so different from the older MG models it was called the MGA, the "first of a new line" to quote the contemporary advertising. There was also a new engine available so the car did not have the originally intended XPAG unit but was fitted with the BMC corporate B-Series type allowing a lower bonnet line.
It was a body-on-frame design and used the straight-4 "B series" engine from the MG Magnette saloon driving the rear wheels through a 4 speed gearbox. Suspension was independent with coil springs and wishbones at the front and a rigid axle with semi-elliptic springs at the rear. Steering was by rack and pinion and was not power assisted. The car was available with either wire spoked or steel disc road wheels.
1 1500
2 Twin-Cam
3 1600 and 1600 De-Luxe
4 Mark II and Mark II De-Luxe
5 Competition history
6 Film & television appearances
7 References
8 External links
MG A 1500
MGA 1500 showing the early style rear lights. (The amber indicators are a modern addition).
1955-195958,750 made
1489cc B-Series I4
The 1489cc engine produced 68hp (51kW) at first, but was soon uprated to 72hp (54kW). Lockheed hydraulic drum brakes were used on all wheels. A coup version was also produced, bringing the total production of standard MGAs to 58,750[2].
An early open car was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1955 had a top speed of 97.8mph (157.4km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60mph (97km/h) in 16.0 seconds. A fuel consumption of 26.7miles per imperial gallon (10.6L/100km; 22.2mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost ?844 including taxes. [1]

1958 MG MGA roadster (North America)
MG MGA roadster (North America)
MG A Twin Cam
1958-19602111 made[2]
1588cc B-Series I4double overhead cam
A high-performance Twin-Cam model was added for 1958. It used a high compression (9.9:1 later 8.3:1) DOHC aluminium cylinder head version of the B-Series engine producing 108hp (81kW; 109PS) (100bhp (75kW; 101PS) in the low compression version). Four wheel disc brakes by Dunlop were also fitted, along with Dunlop peg drive knock-off steel wheels akin to the wheels used on racing Jaguars (wire spoked wheels were never fitted to the Twin Cam).
The temperamental engine was notorious for warranty problems during the course of production, however, and sales were poor. Ironically, the source of the problem was only discovered after production had ended and many restored Twincam cars are running more reliably today than they ever did during production. The Twin-Cam was dropped in 1960 after 2,111 had been produced. The car can best be distinguished from the pushrod models by its centre lock steel road wheels.
An open car was tested by the British The Motor magazine in 1958 and was found to have a top speed of 113mph (182km/h), acceleration from 0-60mph (97km/h) in 9.1 seconds and a fuel consumption of 27.6miles per imperial gallon (10.2L/100km; 23.0mpg-US) was recorded. The test car...(and so on)

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Corona treatment

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Corona treatment (sometimes referred to as air plasma) is a surface treatment process that improves the bonding characteristics of most materials such as: paper, films, foils, and polymers by raising surface energy (dyne level).
All materials have an inherent surface energy (dyne level). Surface Treatment systems are available for virtually any surface format including dimensional objects, sheets and roll goods that are handled in a web format. Corona treatment is the standard surface treatment method in the plastic film, extrusion, and converting industries.
The Corona treatment was invented by the danish engineer Verner Eisby in the 1950's.
1 Materials
2 Equipment
3 Pre-treatment
4 Other technologies
4.1 Atmospheric plasma
4.2 Flame plasma
4.3 Chemical plasma
5 See also
Most plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, have chemically inert and nonporous surfaces with low surface tensions causing them to be non-receptive to bonding with printing inks, coatings, and adhesives. Although results are invisible to the naked eye, surface treating modifies surfaces to improve adhesion.
Polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, vinyl, PVC, PET, metalized surfaces, foils, paper, and paperboard stocks are commonly treated by this method. It is safe, economical, and delivers high line speed throughput. Corona treatment is also suitable for the treatment of injection and blow molded parts, and is capable of treating multiple surfaces and difficult parts with a single pass.
Corona discharge equipment consists of a high-frequency power generator, a high-voltage transformer, a stationary electrode, and a treater ground roll. Standard utility electrical power is converted into higher frequency power which is then supplied to the treater station. The treater station applies this power through ceramic or metal electrodes over an air gap onto the material surface.
All substrates, provide a better bonding surface when they are treated at the time they are produced. This is called re-treatment. The effects of corona treatment diminish over time. Therefore many surfaces will require a second ump treatment at the time they are converted to ensure bonding with printing inks, coatings, and adhesives.
Other technologies
Other technologies used for surface treatment include in-line atmospheric (air) plasma, flame plasma, and chemical plasma systems.
Atmospheric plasma
Atmospheric plasma[1] is very similar to corona but there are a few differences between them. Both systems use one or more high voltage electrodes which positively charge the surrounding blown air ion particles. However in atmospheric plasma systems, the rate oxygen molecules bonding to a material molecule ends develops up to a 100x more. From this increase of oxygen, a higher ion bombardment occurs. This results in stronger material bonding traits and increased reception for inks and coatings. Atmospheric plasma treatment technology also eliminates a possibility of treatment on a material's non-treated side; also known as backside treatment.
Flame plasma
Flame plasma treaters generate more heat than other treating processes, but materials treated through this method tend to have a longer shelf-life. These plasma systems are different from air plasma systems because flame plasma occurs when flammable gas and surrounding air are combusted together into an intense blue flame. Objects surfaces are polarized from the flame plasma affecting the distribution of the surface electrons in an oxidation form.
Chemical plasma
Chemical plasma is based on the combination of air plasma and flame plasma. Much like air plasma, chemical plasma fields are generated from electrically charged air. But, instead of air, chemical plasma relies on a mixture of other gases depositing various chemical groups onto the treated surface.
See also
Surface finishing
Categories: Industrial processes(and so on)

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