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NanaiAlternative names:Nani, Hezhen, Golds, Samagir
Nanai children
Total population
18,000 (est.)
Regions with significant populations
Russia, China: Heilongjiang
Nanai, Mandarin Chinese (in China)
Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism
The Nanai people (self name ????; tr. "nani"; Russian: ???????, tr. "nanaitsy"; Chinese: ???, tr. "H閼猦闁�"; formerly also known as Golds and Samagir) are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin. The ancestors of the Nanais were the Jurchens of northernmost Manchuria.
The Nanai/Hezhe language belongs to the Manchu-Tungusic branch of the Altai languages.
1 Clothing
2 Nanais in Russia
3 Nanais in China
4 Religion
5 Famous Nanais
6 Endonyms
7 Autonomous Areas designated for Nanai
8 References
9 External links

A 1682 published Italian map showing the "Kingdom of the Niuche" (i.e., N?zh?n) or the "Kin (Jin) Tartars", as well as the lands of the "Yupy Tartars" - i.e. the "Fishskin Tartars" (Nanais and related tribes) further east.
The traditional clothing was made out of fish skins. These skins were left to dry. Once dry, they were struck repeatedly with a mallet to leave them completely smooth. Finally they were sewn together. The fish chosen to be used were those weighing more than 50 kilograms.
In the past centuries, this distinct practice earned the Nanai the name "Fish-skin Tartars" (Chinese: ????, Yupi Dazi). This name has also been applied, more generically, to other aboriginal groups of he lower Sungari and lower Amur basins.[1]
Nanais in Russia
In Russia the Nanais live on the Sea of Okhotsk, on the Amur River, downstream from Khabarovsk, on both sides of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, as well as on the banks of the Ussuri and the Girin rivers (the Samagirs). The Russians formerly called them Goldi, after a Nanai clan name. According to the 2002 census, there were 12,160 Nanais in Russia.
In the Soviet Union, a written standard of the Nanai language (based on Cyrillic alphabet) was created by Valentin Avrorin and others. It is still taught today in 13 schools in Khabarovsk.
Nanais in China
The Nanais are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China where they are known as "Hezhe" (??? H閼猦-z). During the Manchukuo period, the Nanais were practically wiped out in China by the Japanese. They had been confined to prisoner camps and in 1949 they numbered about 300 in China. According to the last census of 2004, they numbered 4,640 in China (mostly in Heilongjiang province). Chinese Nanais speak the Hezhen dialect of Nanai. They also have a rich oral literature known as the Yimakan.[2] The dialect does not have a written system in China and Nanais usually write in Chinese. (Second language literacy is 84%.) However as of 2005 teachers have recently finished compiling probably the first Hezhe language textbook.[3]
The Nanais are mainly Shamanist, with a great reverence for the bear (Doonta) and the tiger (Amba). They consider that the shamans have the power to expel bad spirits by means of prayers to the gods. During the centuries they have been worshipers of the spirits of the sun, the moon, the mountains, the water and the trees. According to their beliefs, the land was once flat until great serpents gouged out the river valleys. They consider that all the things of the universe possess their own spirit and that these spirits wander independently throughout the world. In the Nanai religion, inanimate objects were often personified. Fire, for example, was personified as an elderly woman whom the Nanai referred to as Fadzya Mama. Young children were not allowed to run up to the fire, since they might startle Fadzya Mama, and men always were courteous in the presence of a fire.

Dersu Uzala
Nanai shamans, like other Tungusic peoples of the region, had characteristic clothing, consisting of a skirt and jacket; a leather belt with conical metal pendants; mittens with figures of serpents, lizards or frogs; and hats with branching horns or bear, wolf, or fox fur attached to it. Bits of Chinese mirrors were also sometimes incorporated into the costume.
The deceased were normally buried in the ground with the exception of children who died prior to the first birthday; in this case the child's body was wrapped in a cloth or birchbark covering and buried in the tree branches as a "wind burial". Many Nanai are also Tibetan Buddhist.
Famous Nanais
Japanese director Akira Kurosawa's 1975 film Dersu Uzala, based on a book by Russian explorer Vladimir Arsenyev, describes the friendship of a Russian explorer and his Nanai guide named Dersu Uzala....(and so on)

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